Since 2001 GreenPower company has been developing and producing industrial equipment for processing of waste of plant origin by low-temperature pyrolysis. In 2011, a new charcoal BIO-kiln was developed on the basis of the existing development of high-efficient charcoal kiln CK "Continuous". Its main purpose is processing of bulk plant waste, i.e. raw materials which can not be processed in the classic kilns.
BIO-KILN is designed for processing of different types of carbonaceous materials of plant origin with the size of the fraction – 10-40 mm, for example: wood chips, coconut shell and other nuts. Obtained products: BIOCHAR, charcoal and heat energy, if necessary it is possible to separate liquid products of pyrolysis.
The main advantages of BIO-KILN
The principle of BIO-KILN operation
This installation is a continuously operating kiln for the processing of organic raw materials in bulk form. View of the kiln is shown in figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1 and 2 – General view of BIO-KILN with notations of elements
1. The loading hopper for raw materials 5. Slide dampers
2. Channels for raw materials 6. The flue gases channel
3. Gas collector 7. Afterburner
4. Air collectors
The raw materials, crushed and pre-dried in a drum dryer, are fed by conveyor into the hopper (pos. 1), located in the upper part of the kiln. The active zone of the kiln is a vertical drop channels, ending with dampers for unloading of the finished product. Raw materials fall down through the channels (pos.2) in accordance with the stages of the process: pre-drying, pyrolysis (charcoal formation), calcination and cooling of charcoal. The active area of the combustion chamber is located between the channels of movement of raw materials. Heating of the raw materials occurs through the wall. The movement of raw materials and products of combustion in the chambers is oncoming. The active zone of the kiln is designed in such way that several zones are organized over the entire height of the channel of raw materials. The active zone is presented in figure 3. In the active zone there are four zones. The first zone (the numbering of zones goes from the bottom to top in a direction opposite to the movement of heat carrier) – stabilization and cooling of charcoal with a temperature of 300-600 0Đˇ, the second - the calcination zone, where the temperature is 450-600 0Đˇ (it is highlighted in red in the figure 3); the third zone is the pyrolysis of raw materials – 250-450 0Đˇ (it is highlighted in orange in the figure 3); the fourth zone – the zone of pre-drying and beginning of pyrolysis 100-250 0Đˇ (it is highlighted in yellow in the figure 3). Gas extraction is performed directly from the zone 3 of pyrolysis and supplied into a gas collector (pos. 3), and then it is supplied to the bottom of each combustion chamber.
The bunker for raw material of BIO-KILN
The temperature in the active zone is maintained with a certain amount of air, supplied to the combustion chamber - to the area of each zone of the process. The amount of air is maintained at a level necessary to maintain a certain temperature in each zone. The air is supplied to each zone by air collectors (pos. 4). There are provided three air collectors for each zone. Exhaust gases with unburned gas are supplied into flue gas channel (pos.6) and then into afterburner (pos. 7), where its complete combustion occurs. The design of the afterburner provides absolutely complete combustion, ensuring ecological safety of installation and lack of emissions into the atmosphere.
Charcoal unloading is implemented by dampers, located in the lower part of the kiln - in the cooling zone. Each channel has several dampers, providing the portion unloading of ready charcoal and preventing strong subsidence of the raw material below the active zone.
Figure 3 – Internal view with the scheme of the movement of heat and raw materials
The full set of the complex for processing of bulk products of plant origin in charcoal is a following equipment; schematic presentation of the complex is shown in figure 4:
Figure 4 – Schematic representation of the complex
1. Crusher 3.1. Afterburner
2. Drum dryer 3.2. Chimney
2.1. Heat generator 4. The set of conveyors
Technological scheme of the complex
A conveyor for loading of raw material into the hopper of BIO-KILN
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