The lignin is a part of the wood, which acts as a natural binding material during the pressing process and makes the briquettes dense. Hardwood may contain from 20% to 30% of lignin, softwood - up to 50%. Under the influence of very high pressure during briquetting, the temperature of the source material (wood or agricultural waste) increases and this leads to the release of lignin.
Charcoal is solid porous highcarbon material, which formed by wood heating with low access of air (or without air at all) in kilns or retorts. Heat of combustion of charcoal is equal to 30000-35000 kJ/kg (or 7000-8100 kcal/kg). Significant porousness of charcoal determines his high adsorption qualities.
Wood pyrolysis (dry distillation of wood) is a decomposition of wood under the heating up to 450 oC without access for air and by the producing of gaseous and liquid (including wood resin) products and also solid residue – charcoal. Dry distillation of wood is one of the first processes of chemical technology. Since XII it was widely used in Russia to produce the pine-tree resin (that is used to tar wooden vessels and for rope saturation); this trade was called tar extraction.
Pyrolysis is a process of thermal decomposition of industrial waste by its partial burning or direct contact with end product of fuel combustion. This method is used for neutralization of most wastes including “inconvenient” ones for burning or gasification: viscous and paste-like wastes, wet sediments, plastic, slime containing large quantity of ash, soil polluted with residual fuel, oils and other compounds and dust-forming waste.
Due to increase of prices for traditional energy sources, the use of biofuel for domestic and industrial purposes is becoming more and more rational. Pellets and wood briquettes are popular in Europe since the beginning of 21st century. Pellets and briquettes are popular in Europe since the beginning of 21st century. Currently, the volumes of supply and consumption of this fuel in Europe is about 400 million tons per year.
Ğedical waste (ĞW) are factors of direct and indirect risk of environment pollution, emerging civil contagious and non-contagious diseases. World Health Organization (WHO) reckons MW to be hazardous and recommends special services for processing to be created. Majority (according to various authors from 60 to 85%) of medical prophylaxis institution (MPI) waste is non-hazardous and can be reckoned to be classified as solid domestic waste (SDW).
Timber merchants have no place, where to put waste. Maybe they can process it into the charcoal or load it into the blast furnace, as it used to be earlier. Environmentalists with the Kyoto Protocol also do not mind...
Fuel briquette - it is a kind of solid fuel. In modern conditions when exhaustible fuel types are becoming less, a very important point is the search for new more available and efficient sources of energy. More and more people began to turn to renewable energy, because it saves money and is a new stage in the development of production as a whole.
Wood pyrolysis is the first stage of wood combustion. Flames on burning wood are formed not by combustion of the carbon in the wood, but due to gases, which are the volatile products of pyrolysis.This stage represents the decomposition of wood by heating to 450-500°C without air access. In the pyrolysis process many different substances are produced.
Activated (active) coal is carbon sorbents, produced industrially. Active carbons have standardized quality indicators. The sorption capacity, specific area of pores of activated carbon, particle sizes and a number of other indicators are specified by the Standards or Production Specifications.