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Use of pellets in Europe

Pellets are fuel granules of small size and cylindrical shape. They are produced by crashing wooden raw material in a special crusher, which brings it to a powder fraction. Then this mass is dried and compressed into pellets: this process is accompanied by an increase in the temperature of the material, due to which the special substance lingin, which is contained in wood, glues its particles into sufficiently dense granules.
The raw materials for the production of pellets are most often bark, chips and sawdust of various types of wood, but in addition to them can be used:
• logging waste,
• peat,
• agricultural waste (eg, corn),
• straw,
• sunflower husk,
• waste of cereal production.
The main advantage of fuel pellets is their absolute ecological friendliness.
Firstly, pellets practically do not contain ash (in the obtained product this parameter does not exceed 3%).
Secondly, the pellets do not emit large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during combustion (it is released as much as the plant absorbed during its growth). Also emissions of volatile organic substances and nitrogen oxides are minimized, which was achieved with the help of modern equipment for burning fuel. 
And finally, thirdly, wood pellets are manufactured under high pressure and without the use of any chemical fixers, which only improves their environmental performance.

Как появились пеллеты

Today, Europe is the largest consumer of pellets as a fuel for the production of heat and electricity. There they are most often used for heating houses and cottages.
The European market cannot be called homogeneous, each country has its own specifics and differences in the consumption and provision of raw materials for the production of biofuels.
This is primarily due to the difference in natural resources. Such countries as Germany, Austria, Sweden, Finland are more provided with their own biomass, while Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, being large consumers, experience a shortage of pellets and cover domestic demand through imports from other countries.

The largest pellet acceptance terminals are located in the ports of Belgium and Holland. It is also worth noting that the largest biomass stations are also located close to major traffic flows and ports.

According to forecasts of AEBIOM (European Bio-Fuels Association), by 2020 European countries will consume 50 million tons of pellets per year. Today, 60% of all world consumption is carried out by the European pellet market.


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