Bioenergy, primarily raises the question of renewable energy resources. It relates to the recycling of waste wood, peat, waste products of farm animals, which in the vernacular is called manure, and waste processing of agricultural crops. It is not only respect for the environment and the surrounding area, but also affordable prices, which is also an important advantage.
However, the use of energy resources, simply wood, firewood, charcoal and in some countries, and manure, dominated for a long time of human history. With the development of industry, and it is almost the XVIII—XIX century, people began increasingly to use fossil coal, later oil and gas.
At the end of the twentieth century, and especially in the last decades of our century, Bioenergy switched to a new, completely different level, now biomass is used not directly, but by processing into more high-tech energy products. These are bioethanol, biodiesel, more well-known wood pellets (granules), briquettes, wood chips and charcoal. Recently, scientists are developing a technology for producing fuel from algae and silt.
So, we found out that the raw material for the new generation of bio-fuel is manure, industrial, oil and grain crops, plant growing and timber waste, algae. How many of these resources are on our planet? How fast are they renewing? And how often are they used? Let us turn to statistics.
Kirill Degtyarev, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Alexander Solovyov (Research Laboratory of Renewable Energy Sources at the Geographical Faculty of Moscow State University named M.V. Lomonosov) has been engaged for a long time in the issue of renewing the biological resources of our planet. He notes that bioresources have a complex object of assessment, as they differ in their energy capabilities and have four components: biomass (mass of all living organisms), phytomass (total mass of plants), zoomass (total mass of animals) and bioproductivity (increase of biomass in time unit).
It should be noted that "the forest is restored five times slower than the average phytomass of the land, and ten times slower than meadow or steppe vegetation, which is updated every year."
In total, the annual increase in Bio-raw materials is more than 500 million tons, and, for example, the annual volume of crude oil production in Russia is also about 500 million tons. The conclusion is obvious - Biomass can be considered as a potential “second oil” that is renewed by using new genetically modified species of energy wood.
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