Wood briquettes - an environmentally friendly fuel that is widely used around the world for heating of private facilities and in industrial boiler factories. The briquettes are produced using special presses, without the use of binders, the role of which the lignin, released in the process of briquetting, performs.
Depending on the parameters of raw materials and final products, there are the following types of equipment for briquettes: extrusion (screw), hydraulic and mechanical.
Extrusion press is designed for pressing small wood waste and agricultural industry waste into fuel briquettes. The production of wood briquettes takes place by moving raw materials by screw under the influence of strong pressure and sufficiently high temperature. The most famous technology of screw pressing is the Austrian, known under the brand Pini-Kay. The briquettes produced on this extruder have the highest density (more than 1.2 kg/dm3), long burning, do not change their properties and characteristics during long-term storage.
One of the disadvantages of screw presses is the great heat loss and, consequently, low efficiency (0.3 to 0.5). Therefore, manufacturers of this equipment are striving to find a solution to this problem with the aim of increasing the efficiency of screw presses.
Hydraulic press is designed for briquetting raw materials with moisture content from 6 to 15%. The most famous are RUF presses, manufactured by German company. The formation of briquette on press RUF is carried out by means of three hydraulic cylinders, which feed, compress, densify and form sawdust into bricks of size 150 x 60 260 x 100 mm. Length of briquette can be determined optionally.
The briquettes produced on this type of equipment have the lowest density (1 kg/dm3), short burning, are not subject to long storage without hermetic packaging, often crumble during transportation. In other words, they have the worst consumer properties, accordingly, most often the lowest price. The production process on a hydraulic press is the most simple from the point of view of personnel qualification. The equipment utilization rate can exceed 90%. Hydraulic press is more expensive than the screw, but despite this it still has the shortest payback period.
Press of mechanical type is designed for the manufacture of briquettes from sawdust, straw, husk and other crushed material suitable for use as fuel by pressing method. This press is characterized by its reliability and good performance quality. The briquettes produced on such press have an average density (1-1. 2 kg/dm3), long burning, do not change their properties and characteristics during long-term storage. Such briquettes are cheaper than those made by screw press, but are more expensive than briquettes produced in the result of hydraulic pressure.
The main advantage of these presses is the possibility of producing briquettes of almost any shape (round, square, octagonal in cross section, including briquettes with hole) that in combination with high performance gives the possibility to produce briquettes not only for private consumers, but also for industrial use. The process of operation is much easier compared to other types of presses and it doesn’t require the presence of the staff near operating equipment. Starting and finishing of the press operation is conducted automatically depending on the presence of raw materials in the hopper. The press can work continuously. The equipment utilization rate is over 90%.
Currently, a large number of briquettes, especially for industrial use, are produced on mechanical presses of the Danish company C. F. Nielsen. This equipment is characterized by a high level of performance, but its cost is quite high.
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