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Comparative analysis of the use of wood and pyrolysis gas as fuel

Pyrolysis is the heating of the carbon-containing raw material with a lack or absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis of wood takes place in the charcoal kiln CK-4 EURO at specified temperatures. Charcoal of the required quality and a large quantity of pyrolysis gas are formed depending on the chosen temperature mode.

Released during pyrolysis the volatile components, including water (H2O) and the other steam in the presence of carbon (charcoal), which takes part in the reaction as a catalyst, turn into in the pyrolysis gas of different composition according to the formula:

С + Н2О + СpНxОy = СnНm + СH4 + Н2 + СО

As the obtained pyrolysis gas passes through a layer of active carbon (charcoal), it is almost absolutely pure at the output without different kinds of harmful impurities and during its complete combustion the reaction takes place with the release of only carbon dioxide and water into the atmosphere.

Pyrolysis gas combustion

The average calorific value during conventional combustion of firewood, e.g. birch, is 2 300 kcal/kg.

The average amount of pyrolysis gas obtained from 1 kg of wood raw material (wood, sawdust, low-quality wood) in the charcoal kiln is 1.2 m3.

The composition of the obtained pyrolysis gas is changed depending on the used raw materials:

Composition

Percentage ratio

СnНm

19-29%

СH4

33-45%

Н2

12-28%

СО

11-18%

СО2

1,5-2,5%

 

The specific weight of pyrolysis gas (at 0 °C and 760 mm Hg) is 0,65-0,85 kg/m3. Net calorific value of pyrolysis gas at a temperature of 200 °C and atmospheric pressure of 760 mm Hg is 8700-9500 kcal/m3, that is, from 1 kg of wood raw materials, processed in the charcoal burning kilns, it can be obtained at least:

8 700 kcal/m3 * 1,2 m3= 10 440 kcal/kg

Firewood combustion

Coefficient of efficiency of charcoal kiln during pyrolysis of wood raw material averages 80%, so from 1 kg of firewood, processed in charcoal kilns, it can be obtained:

10 440 kcal * 80% = 8 352 kcal

This is 3.6 times more than during conventional combustion of birch firewood!

This aspect has a significant impact on the efficiency of endothermic processes: drying and calcining of charcoal.

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