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Charcoal application

Our company specializes in the engineering and manufacturing of equipment for the charcoal production from wood of different kinds of trees, briquettes and also waste from wood processing industry and agriculture.

To get charcoal from wood is not difficult. It is difficult to get charcoal of high quality with high physical-chemical parameters. For this a special technology was developed and patented by company GreenPower.

Firewood charcoal

The main applications of charcoal are:

1. Fuel for fireplaces, braziers, hookahs and other similar means.

In that as distinct from ordinary fuel (for example – firewood), charcoal doesn’t make smoke and open flame and gives only necessary temperature – embers. To prepare different dishes there is no need to wait till the firewood burning down, because charcoal is ready fuel.

2. In industry.

  • in nonferrous metallurgy (for example in order to receive aluminum, boron etc.);
  • in production of pure silicon, which is used to receive semiconductors;
  • in chemical industry;
  • in metallurgy, for example as reductant (there is a large content of carbon in charcoal);
  • in production of glass, cut glass, paints, electrodes and plastic.
  • obtaining of liquid minor products in the form of wood resin (tar oil) during pyrolysis. Turpentine, acetic acid, colophony, methyl alcohol, spirit solvents etc. are derived from wood resin.

3. In agriculture.

  • Food additive in animal husbandry
  • Fertilizer in plant growing

4. In building.

As insulating material in building because charcoal is very hygroscopic and absorbs smells very well.

5. As anticorrosive powders and lubricants.

The charcoal finds some use in instrument-making and printing industries where it is used for grinding and polishing of details and forms. The most useful is charcoal from softwood obtained by a special technological regime. In engineering, in some cases, it is used solid lubricant, mainly graphite. Charcoal, because of the low content of ash and impurities, can also be used for the production of specified grease. For this purpose, charcoal is mixed with sedimentary resin, is pierced at a temperature of 1400-1500°C and then is processed by sour manganese potassium, sulfuric acid or tannin.

6. As black powder production.

Charcoal made of alder wood or buckthorn containing 72-80% of carbon is used for black powder production. Gunpowder, made of charcoal from other wood species, is harder to ignite, so the use of other types of charcoal is not practiced. The burning speed of the gunpowder is affected by the amount of charcoal and the content of carbon in charcoal. Increasing the amount of charcoal, burning speed of the gunpowder reduces, while increasing the carbon content in the charcoal - it increases. Charcoal is included in the composition of the gunpowder in an amount of from 12 to 20%. So, hunting gunpowder contains 14-16% of charcoal, corded gunpowder– 12%, gunpowder without sulfur – 20%, etc. 

7. In electrical and coal goods production.

These goods are used in many branches of national economy. They are used in electrical equipment of different engines, in electrical machines, for thermal purposes, in electrovacuum technique etc. Al the types of carbon resistors, different contacts, brush, technical and communication wares etc. are concerned.

8. As plastic filler.

The charcoal can replace expensive and scarce graphite. As it was above mentioned the charcoal is a low-ash very clean material concerning the presence of foreign substances. It is stable in chemically aggressive media and sufficiently heat-resistant. Lump charcoal possesses high electrical resistivity. During charcoal calcining its conductivity increases rapidly. Calcined charcoal acquires a considerable adsorption activity, which increases its main utility function as a filler - adsorption consolidation of the product. Changes of mechanical properties of liquids near solid surfaces is the basis of this function. The molecules of the dissolved resin near the surface of solid coal particles are oriented under the action of adsorption forces of attraction. The liquid around the particle acquires an ordered structure; its mechanical properties strongly change. During the solidification, this structure is saved and physico-mechanical properties of the formed solid are improving. In the production of minor items, it can be used wastes of charcoal production, i.e. coal fines and dust which not being used effectively. As connecting element for wood-charcoal plastics can be used such resins as phenol-formaldehyde, furfur aldehyde etc. The composition of press materials may include a wood-resin pitch, the presence of which in small quantities improves the plasticity of the products.

9. As raw material for activated carbon production.

Active carbon is porous carbonaceous body by contacting gaseous or liquid medium it creates considerable surface area for the sorption process progress.

Applications of activated carbons:

  • Chemical, food, pharmaceutical, fuel and energy, metallurgical, oil and gas production and processing industries as well as environmental protection.
  • Coconut shell charcoal

About active carbons.

Activated carbon (AC) is designed to remove dissolved organic substances and improve the taste of water (removal of odors and flavors). Carbonaceous substances are activated by high temperature (800-1000 °C) steam or dewatering chemicals. Chemical activation consists in heating initial material up to 400-500°C in the presence of strong chemical dewatering agent (phosphoric acid, zinc chloride, etc.). Most of the materials is then subjected to acid washing. Acid washing removes metals, ash and other impurities (e.g., silicon), which can be washed out during operation.

Activated carbon is the adsorbent. The properties of the adsorbent depends on:

– surface area;
– pore size;
– structure of distribution of the pores.

The adsorbed substance is a substance which should be adsorbed (removed from water). It is important to know the characteristics of the adsorbed substance, as it is possible to set the size and configuration of the molecules of the adsorbed substance.

To know the size of molecules is important for three reasons: with the  growth in the size of the molecules the solubility of the substance decreases; with the growth in the size of the molecules the adsorption decreases, because the molecules can not penetrate into the pores of the adsorbent; the bigger are molecules, the more time is  required for their penetration into the pores.

Activated carbon is widely used in wastewater treatment plants:

Powdery active carbon with high adsorptive properties has been used for a long time in the purification of natural waters to remove substances that give the water an unpleasant taste and smell. However, the lack of a simple and economical method of its regeneration does not allow to use this coal during wastewater treatment. In recent years some information about the use of powdered coal for this purpose has appeared. The treatment technology is the following. Coal in the amount of 240-600 mg/l mixed with water, then polyelectrolytes are introduced into the mixture and the coal is separated from the water in the settling tank. Separated coal is regenerated in a steam environment at 400 °C.



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